Protecting India’s Indigenous Tribes: Challenges and Initiatives

Sansad TV


The recent passing of the last known member of an indigenous tribe in the Amazon rainforest, famously referred to as the ‘man of the hole,’ has reignited discussions on the vital need to safeguard indigenous communities worldwide. This unidentified man from an uncontacted Indigenous tribe in Brazil lived in solitude for decades, drawing attention to the imperative of protecting and preserving the cultures, languages, and traditions of indigenous people.

In India, Article 342 collectively identifies most tribes as “Scheduled Tribes,” comprising a population of approximately 110 million distributed across 18 states. These tribes have long thrived sustainably in harmony with nature. However, dwindling numbers and various challenges necessitate not only the protection of their populations but also the preservation of their rich heritage, culture, language, art, traditions, and sensibilities.

Initiatives for Tribal Welfare:

The complete list of name of tribes, along with their location in India

Several government initiatives have been introduced to improve the lives of India’s indigenous tribes:

  1. Pradhan Manti Van Dhan Yojana: This program aims to foster tribal entrepreneurship by creating tribal clusters and strengthening their economic prospects through market linkages.
  2. Van Bandhu Kalyan Yojana: This initiative is focused on holistic development, providing an enabling environment for the well-being of tribal communities.
  3. Ekalavya Model Schools: These schools offer quality middle and high-level education to Scheduled Tribe students in remote areas, ensuring equitable access to educational opportunities.
  4. Minor Forest Produce: The program seeks to provide fair monetary returns to gatherers involved in collecting, processing, storing, packaging, and transporting minor forest produce.
  5. Vocational Training Centers: These centers are established in tribal areas to enhance skill development and employment prospects.


However, despite these initiatives, some critical shortcomings persist:

  1. Limited Reach: Benefits often fail to reach the most disadvantaged sections of tribal communities, disproportionately favoring the upper echelons.
  2. Lack of Participation: Tribal communities often have limited say in the programs designed for their development, hindering their active involvement.
  3. Bureaucratic Inefficiencies: The bureaucratic system has struggled to effectively act as a development agency.
  4. Political Interests: Local politicians and elites have at times acted against the interests of tribal populations to further their own agendas.
  5. Health and Nutrition: Many tribal communities face health challenges, including diseases like sickle cell anemia, and suffer from poor nutrition levels.
  6. Housing and Infrastructure: Inadequate housing and limited access to basic amenities like clean water, sanitation, and electricity remain prevalent issues.

Addressing these challenges requires a multifaceted approach:

  1. Infrastructure Development: Improved road connectivity in tribal areas can enhance access to healthcare, education, and social services.
  2. Legal Reforms: Recommendations from committees such as the Virginius Xaxa committee advocate for exclusive mining rights for tribals, greater autonomy in land acquisition decisions, and stricter implementation of the Forest Rights Act.
  3. Land Rights: State governments should seek permissions from landowners and consult with Gram Sabhas (village councils) in tribal areas for land-related decisions.
  4. Environmental Clearances: All required clearances, including those under the Forest Conservation Act and Wildlife Protection Act, should be obtained before granting leases.
  5. Tribal Cooperatives: Granting licenses for minor minerals to tribal cooperatives in scheduled areas can empower indigenous communities economically.


To protect and uplift India’s indigenous tribes, it is imperative to strengthen institutions responsible for delivering services and support. Administrative, technical, and financial empowerment of Tribal Welfare Departments, Integrated Tribal Development Agencies, and Projects are essential. Additionally, converging scattered resources and activities under various components is the need of the hour. Only through comprehensive efforts can India ensure the well-being, preservation of culture, and sustainable development of its tribal communities.